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The first bombing of Iraq ended on February 27, 1991. During the bombing, 88,500 tons of explosives were dropped on Iraq but only 6,500 tons were so-called "smart bombs." The country's infrastructure, including '/ power utilities, water treatment plants, and transportation centres was destroyed along with the agricultural and industrial base. By the end of the bombing, Iraq was incapable of producing sufficient food for its citizens and most people lacked access to clean water. Estimates of the number of casualties range from 100,000 to 200,000 people.